Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late 20th century across philosophy , the arts , architecture , and criticism , marking a departure from modernism. The term has been more generally applied to describe a historical era said to follow after modernity and the tendencies of this era. Postmodernism is generally defined by an attitude of skepticism , irony , or rejection toward what it describes as the grand narratives and ideologies associated with modernism, often criticizing Enlightenment rationality and focusing on the role of ideology in maintaining political or economic power. Postmodern thinkers frequently describe knowledge claims and value systems as contingent or socially-conditioned , framing them as products of political, historical, or cultural discourses and hierarchies. Common targets of postmodern criticism include universalist ideas of objective reality , morality , truth , human nature , reason , science , language , and social progress.
Postmodernism Essay - Term Paper
Critical theory also capitalized as Critical Theory  is an approach to social philosophy that focuses on reflective assessment and critique of society and culture in order to reveal and challenge power structures. With origins in sociology and literary criticism , it argues that social problems are influenced and created more by societal structures and cultural assumptions than by individual and psychological factors. Maintaining that ideology is the principal obstacle to human liberation,  critical theory was established as a school of thought primarily by the Frankfurt School theoreticians Herbert Marcuse , Theodor Adorno , Walter Benjamin , Erich Fromm , and Max Horkheimer. Horkheimer described a theory as critical insofar as it seeks "to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them. In sociology and political philosophy , "Critical Theory" means the Western-Marxist philosophy of the Frankfurt School , developed in Germany in the s and drawing on the ideas of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud. Though a "critical theory" or a "critical social theory" may have similar elements of thought, capitalizing Critical Theory as if it were a proper noun stresses the intellectual lineage specific to the Frankfurt School. In Habermas's work, critical theory transcended its theoretical roots in German idealism and progressed closer to American pragmatism.
While most sociologists agree that modern society is more fragmented and uncertain, they disagree with some elements of post-modernism. If we want a better world we need to figure out a way of being more in control of what kind of world we are creating, rather than just accepting our fate as consumers and playing like little children. Building on the above — thinkers on the left argue that p-m is a middle class, intellectual view point — a luxury of the chattering class — the new proletariat in the developing world may not see the relevance of post-modernism to their lives.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late 20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism, marking a departure from modernism. The term has been more generally applied to the historical era following modernity and the tendencies of this era. While encompassing a wide variety of approaches and disciplines, postmodernism is generally defined by an attitude of skepticism, irony, or rejection of the grand narratives and ideologies of modernism, often calling into question various assumptions of Enlightenment rationality. Consequently, common targets of postmodern critique include universalist notions of objective reality, morality, truth, human nature, reason, science, language, and social progress.