1680 1850 essay history international library military naval warfare
The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar , who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania , thus distinguishing it from Gaul France , which he had conquered. In the Late Middle Ages , the regional dukes, princes, and bishops gained power at the expense of the emperors. Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation within the Catholic Church after , as the northern states became Protestant, while the southern states remained Catholic. The two parts of the Holy Roman Empire clashed in the Thirty Years' War — , which was ruinous to the twenty million civilians living in both parts.
HH104 American Naval History
BBC - History - British History in depth: Life at Sea in the Royal Navy of the 18th Century
Introduction: The Royal Navy. Perhaps the greatest navy in world history, the Royal Navy has been a symbol of the might of Great Britain for over two hundred years. The Royal Navy itself has a history and naval tradition that stretches back over six centuries, making it one of the oldest institutions currently in existence. It has been the inspiration for countless novels and the image of the Royal Navy is virtually synonymous with the Age of Sail. This document contains a selection of both primary and secondary source available for both the casual and serious researcher on the history of the Royal Navy from its medieval roots to the start of the First World War. The guide can also provide an idea of where new research into the Royal Navy can be done, information particularly useful to masters and doctoral candidates amongst others.
Naval History - Essay Example
Marxist interpretations of class conflict between the aristocracy and emergent middle class are unhelpful in describing the political situation in eighteenth-century Britain and its literary works. Following the restoration of the monarchy in , British society remained under the firm authority of the monarchy, aristocracy, and the landed gentry. Nonetheless, Britain was also being transformed by the Financial Revolution after the Glorious Revolution of In response to this paradoxical situation, a nation ruled by the old elite but increasingly dominated by commerce, authors experimented with socially mixed combinations of tragedy, comedy, the epic, pastoral, and satire.
Last updated April 27, Unfortunately, since the scholars designing the new calendar didn't have the concept of zero, the new Gregorian calendar is calculated to start at year 1, so we go directly from December 31, 1 BC to January 1, 1 AD thereby making all the easy calculations of date intervals off by one. The population of Rome swells to one million people; a record it will keep for 1, years until London reaches that number. Battle of Teutoberg Forest - 20, Roman soldiers under the command of Publius Quinctilius Varus in Germany are killed while in a long convoy line through the Teutoberg Forest. Many years later Emperor Augustus, desperately needing those legions, went around the palace late at night muttering, "Varus, give me back my legions!