AP English Language and Composition Exam Free-Response Question and Scoring Information Archive
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Brown, Julia Bryan-Wilson, and Edited by Nicole R. The land around had been the object of dispute and struggle for generations. It had been taken over from Javanese nobility and peasants by Dutch planters in the course of the nineteenth century. Later, when the Dutch fled during the Japanese occupation in , the victors encouraged local peasants to take over the land. These smallholders continued to farm the land after Indonesian independence in , and in the s they were promised legal rights to it as part of government land reform.
What is a dictionary? A dictionary is a reference book about words and as such it describes the functioning of individual words sometimes called lexical items. It does so by listing these words in alphabetical order in the form of headwords, the words listed as entries in the dictionary. Even though this section focuses on dictionaries, it will be useful initially to distinguish between a dictionary , an encyclopedia and a thesaurus.
You have probably encountered documents that use masculine nouns and pronouns to refer to subject s whose gender is unclear or variable, or to groups that contain people who are not actually men. For example, the U. English has changed since the Declaration of Independence was written. These words are easy to spot and replace with more neutral language, even in contexts where many readers strongly expect the gendered noun.